|The Overall Strategic Development of the Chinese S&T Endeavor|
China now has a contingent of 19.13 million scientific and technical personnel, among whom 2.582 million are involved in science and technology activities. There are 5,860 institutes above the county level conducting scientific research work. Over the years, the country has established a comprehensive S & T system which covers all fields of science and technology.
In line with the principle and strategic objectives set for China's science and technology development, China's S & T efforts are strategically deployed at the
following three tiers:
At the first tier are R&D activities aimed at tackling major S & T snags encountered in the nation's economic construction
Through the organization and execution of the "National Program for Key S&T Projects", the "Industrial Experiment Program", the "Spark Program", the "National S & T Achievements Dissemination Program", and the "National Program for Science and Technology for Sustainable Development", efforts are under way to accelerate technological innovation and product regeneration in traditional industries, to develop and exploit advanced science and technology, and to harmonize the economic and social development with nature by upgrading the technological and labor performance level both in industry and agriculture.
At the second tier are efforts to develop high and emerging technologies
and high-tech industries
Under the "National High Technology Research and Development Program" ("863 Program") and the "Torch Program", these efforts are designed to place the nation at the frontiers of the world's high technology development in certain fields; the S&T manpower is concentrated on key projects and limited objectives; and the
commercialization, industrialization and globalization of high and emerging technologies are vigorously pursued.
At the third tier are undertakings in basic research and applied basic research
By launching the "National Program for Key Basic Research Projects"("the Scaling the Heights Program") and establishing the National Natural Science Foundation mechanism and key national Laboratories, the nation's basic research is expected to be greatly strengthened and provide a solid basis for the long-term scientific and technological advances as well as for the economic and social development.
S & T INPUT
Indicators Unit 1989 1990 1991 1992 l993 1994 1995
R&D expenditure 100million yuan 112.31 125.49 142.30 169.00 196.00 222.24 286.00
GERD/Gl)P % 0.70 0.71 0.70 0.70 0.62 0.50 0.50
Govn't.funds l00million yuan 127.87 139.12 160.69 189.26 225.61 268.25 301.88
Govn't. funds/ Total bud.* % 4.53 4.51 4.74 5.06 4.86 4.63 4.42
R8D personnel (FTE)** 492.l 617.1 642.5 655.1 665.6
*The debt is not included in total finance expenditure.
** FTE: Full-time equivalent jobs. which are total hours worked divided by average annual hours worked in full-time jobs.
S & T OUTPUT
Indicators Unit l989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
Scientific Papers paper 10,053 13,183 13,542 15,466 20,178 24,584 26,395
Published Abroad *
Scientific Papers paper 86,419 88,723 94,435 98,575 101,983 107,492 107,991
Published Domestically **
Number of patents item 32,905 41,469 50,040 67,135 77.276 77,735 83,045
Exports of high-tech million
products US$ 1,848 2,686 2,877 3.996 4,676 6,342 10,091
National major S&T item 20,278 26.829 32,653 33,384 32,916 30,230 31,000
* The indexes used include SCI.L ISTP and EI services
** The data of domestic publications and based on about 1200 journals of China